Here is a list of some very basic Git commands. They are very useful for the beginners in Git.
Use the below command to initialize Git repository,
After running the above command the .git folder will be created inside the current directory.
Then, use the below command to clone the files from remote server to your local
git clone username@host:/path/to/repository
Here, the example Git repo
git clone firstname.lastname@example.org:yourusername/sample-repository.git --- or --- git clone https://github.com/yourusername/sample-repository.git
Now, your local copy will be created with the folder named sample-repository.
If you want to clone the files with any other specific folder name instead of sample-repository, add the folder name as follows,
git clone email@example.com:yourusername/sample-repo.git MyFirstClone
Now, your local copy will be created with the folder named MyFirstClone instead of sample-repository.
Setting Your Details:
Sometimes you may need to configure your name and email on Git. Use the below command to check which name and email address is associated with Git
git config user.name git config user.email
If you want to update the name and email address, use the below command,
git config --global user.name "Thomas Raj" git config --global user.email "firstname.lastname@example.org"
Here, –global is used to set the configuration for all projects.
The git branch command lets you create, list, rename and delete branches.
git branch --- or --- git branch --list
The above command used to list all of the branches in your local repository.
The below command used to list all remote branches.
git branch -a
To create new branch use the below command
git branch my_new_branch
To delete the specified branch
git branch -d branch_name_to_delete
This is a safe operation in that Git prevents you from deleting the branch if it has unmerged changes. Suppose if you want to delete the specified branch, even if it has unmerged changes, use the below command
git branch -D branch_name_to_delete
To rename the current branch name, use the below command
git branch -m new_branch_name
If you want to switch to another branch
git checkout another_branch_name
Working On Your Repository:
The below command is used to check what are all the files have been changed or added or removed in the local repository.
Git has the following three areas,
- First one is our working directory
- Second one is Index which is act as a staging area.
- The third one is Head.
By using the git status command we can know about the changes that what we have done in our local repository. Then we have to upload the local changes to the remote server. Follow the below steps to upload the local changes to the remote server.
git add this command is used to add the modification from our working directory to Index area.
To add all the files
git add -A
To add a single file
git add filename
To add a specific folder
git add foldername/
git commit this command is used to move the changes from Index (staging area) to Head. But the Head is still in your local repository.
git commit -m "Your commit message"
Finally, you have to use the below command to push all the local modification to your remote server.
git push origin master
Hope this helps.